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Airlines could be another example of this. Duopoly: A special case: A duopoly is a market structure wherein just two firms dominate an industry. Hence duopoly happens to be a threat to smaller firms and for any new incumbent or enthusiastic entrepreneur who tends to make an attempt to enter such markets. For Cournot I'd say the countries in OPEC. Duopoly A situation in which two companies split all or nearly all the market share of a good or service. aluminum production - In the U.S., the top two steel producers (Arconic and Alcoa) have annual revenue in excess of ten billion dollars each. The duopoly members essentially agree to split the market. . Duopolies sell to consumers in a competitive market where the choice of an individual consumer can not affect the firm. Neither company can behave as if he has a monopoly because he has to take the other’s production and pricing policies into account. A Duopoly Example. Owing to very little competition, there is scope for the participating players to extract the maximum profits from the products that they happen to sell. Each firm knows its own total cost of production, the total cost of production of the competitor and the industry demand. Oligopoly Examples. Exemples de duopoly dans une phrase, comment l'utiliser. In contrast to a monopoly business wherein a single player happens to dominate the market and enjoy the maximum market share leaving consumers with little or no choice in having to select between better products, forms of competition such as duopoly tend to end this practice and bring about better choice to customers. One small mistake, a wrong decision, or a delay in the adoption of certain trends or updated practices can cause huge losses. duopoly a subset of OLIGOPOLY, describing a MARKET situation in which there are only two suppliers. Cournot competition is an economic model in which competing firms choose a quantity to produce independently and simultaneously, named after … Under this Cournot Duopoly model, it is assumed that the players would make an arrangement to divide the market into half and then share it. ADVERTISEMENTS: This model was developed by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg and is an extension of Cournot’s model. 1- Microsoft. There may be a latent need of the consumer that the existing brands fail to notice and fulfill thereby leaving the consumers with no choice but just accept the products that the duopoly players have to offer in the market. Bertrand’s Duopoly Model: Cournot assumes that the duopolist takes his rivals’ sales as constant … — Thomas Seal, Bloomberg.com, "U.K. Examples of duopoly in a sentence, how to use it. A duopoly is a special type of oligopoly in which the market has only two firms. Mobile operating systems: dominated by Android and Apple iOS. For example, if there are three sellers, the industry, and firms will be in equilibrium when each firm supplies 1/3 of the market. Firms will be in a position to generate significantly higher profits for themselves. With the Bertrand model, you focus on what price is selected to maximize your profits. For example, a large cell phone services providing enter-prise is pondering upon entering a monopolistic market of stationary (wire line) phone services, making the de-cision enter or stay out. Each firm’s quantity demanded is a function of not only the price it charges but also the price charged by its rival. On the one hand, we have perfect competition or pure competition and monopoly on the other hand.In between these two extremes have imperfect competitio… Following are duopoly example: The Cournot model, in which firms compete on output, and the Bertrand model, in which firms compete on price, describe duopoly dynamics. The markets tend to be simpler for consumers as they do not have to put their time and energy in having to choose between multiple products of different brands by making the necessary research and comparison. A duopoly is a form of oligopoly, where only two companies dominate the market. There are a number of models of duopoly markets which fall into two main categories: nonreactive models that do not allow for any anticipation by one firm of … Game Theory Duopolies.Duopolies relate to game theory. They would stand no chance against the big majors that would currently be dominating the market. Boeing and Airbus are a classic duopoly with the two companies dominating the market for airline production with the two companies owning 99% of the market for commercial production. Duopoly refers to a market situation wherein there are two sellers that go on to own all or possess nearly all of the entire market share for the product or service. Firms have to select outputs (capacity) in order to maximize profits. These two cards handle the largest proportion of the electronic card market. Thus, the three sellers together supply 3/4 of the market, 1/4 of the market remaining unsupplied. Monopolistic competition 3. In this article I will review some cases of companies that have exclusivity in the production of goods or services in the world. More often than not, owing to high barriers of entry, smaller firms find it difficult to enter the market. Duopoly definition, the market condition that exists when there are only two sellers. Duopoly. There are two models for duopoly: the Cournot model and the Bertrand model. Hence the smaller firms would tend to have no choice but go on to unwind themselves, in the long run, owing to stiff competition in the market. This is convenient, but not necessary. It … Televisa and Azteca in the Mexican Television market. duopoly market participant (they are called players) is composed of several alternative strategic decisions. Advantages of Oligopolies. MonopolyThe Market Structure can be shown by the following chart:Thus, there are two extremes of market structure. – Examples and Discussion. Does the United States Have a Political Duopoly In the Cournot and … This has been a guide to what is a duopoly and its meaning. What is “the Tyranny of the Duopoly”? I am coining the term “tyranny of the duopoly” here to describe the ills of duopolies and thus am using it in the same way tyranny of the majority is used. Two sellers, many buyers. Consumers are at a loss and so are new small firms that intend to enter the market as their possibility of survival is greatly reduced. For example, under the Cournot model, a competitive basis is the quantity of output, producing prices and outputs between the monopoly and the perfectly competitive markets. A year later it began flights between Dublin and London, with the end of the duopoly, sparking a massive shakeup of the airline sector. Cournot believed that it was the quantity that would drive the competition between the 2 companies whereas Bertrand would always go on to believe that it would be the price. Then in this case Q … However, consumers have no choice but to accept either one of the 2 brands that are available. Determine strategies adopted by players. Duopoly: A special case: A duopoly is a market structure wherein just two firms dominate an industry. It was developed by Antoine A. Cournot in his “Researches Into the Mathematical principles of the Theory of Wealth”, 1838. A market wherein there are two sellers or producers of a product is called do a Duopoly. Hence from the point of view of the bigger firms, duopoly stands as an excellent opportunity for them to have strong market power and establish themselves. Examples where two companies control a large proportion of a market are: Airbus and Boeing in the market for large commercial airplanes. Game theory states that the decisions of one major player in an oligopoly influences all the others’ decisions. If the firms have the same marginal costs (MC A = MC b), each firm produces half the market output. Examples of duopoly in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Huawei is set to be excluded from British 5G networks by 2027 due to security concerns, leaving phone carriers reliant on a supply duopoly of Finland’s Nokia Oyj and Sweden’s Ericsson AB. 25 exemples: A duopoly party system with disciplined and cohesive parties tends to encourage… In fact, the earliest duopoly model was developed in 1838 by the French economist Augustin Cournot. A duopoly is a type of oligopoly where two firms have dominant or exclusive control over a market. Aircraft manufacturer: Boeing and Airbus. Learn more. CFA® And Chartered Financial Analyst® Are Registered Trademarks Owned By CFA Institute.Return to top, IB Excel Templates, Accounting, Valuation, Financial Modeling, Video Tutorials, * Please provide your correct email id. Perhaps the best known is the Cournot model. Examples of duopolies: Soft drinks industry: dominated by The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo. 25 examples: A duopoly party system with disciplined and cohesive parties tends to encourage… Duopoly definition is - an oligopoly limited to two sellers. Among the best-known examples of duopoly we can mention are Visa and MasterCard credit cards. Visa and Mastercard – two companies which process credit card payments take around 80-90% of market share, gaining highly profitable commission on the processing of payments. Intel controls a market share of around 66.7%, Airbus and Boeing respectively control about 45% and 43%, Visa holds a 60% share of the credit and debit card market, Coca-Cola Company’s market share was 42.7%, Android controls a market share of around 86.1%, Cournot Model: Concept, Assumption, Solution, and Criticism, Imperfect Competition: Definition, Characteristics, Types, Collusion: Definition, Influencing Factors, Types, Pros and Cons, Price Taker: Definition, Characteristics, and Examples, Vertical Integration: Concept, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, What is the national savings? First consider first the case of uniform-pricing monopoly, as a benchmark. They have a complete hold over the supply of that product. Two sellers, many buyers. The aforesaid examples of oligopoly highlight the different aspects. These two cards handle the largest proportion of the electronic card market. First consider first the case of uniform-pricing monopoly, as a benchmark. Emphasis is laid on the number of goods that are produced indicating that this is what would shape the competition between the 2 firms. Cournot uses the example of mineral spring water, whose production costs nothing. To increase market power and profits, the two players may engage in collusive cooperation. Firms have to select outputs (capacity) in order to maximize profits. With duopoly, with every player trying to be better than the other, there is competition at every phase, be it innovative products at services or even a wide range of products at lower prices, there develops a certain efficiency in the business and consumers too stand to gain out of it. A product of both the sellers is Homogeneous and the prices are also the same. A firm determines its competitor's output level and the residual market demand. It is one of the most controversial cases of monopoly and dominance on the planet. By the 1990s, Airbus had become a … Monopoly is the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service. Just as in a duopoly the two producers can collude to keep prices high, in a duopsony the two consumers can keep prices low by cooperating. An example of such a system might be a city with only two dentists. Firms are identical and produce an homogenous product. It is the most commonly studied form of oligopoly due to its simplicity. But sense prevailed and a comfortable duopoly closed in on Sydney newspaper readers. Cournot competition is an economic model used to describe an industry structure in which companies compete on the amount of output they will produce, which they decide on independently of each other and at the same time. Considering this, Bertrand proposed an alternative to Cournot.Considering Bertrand’s model from a game theory perspective, it can be analysed as a … You can learn about accounting from the following articles –, Copyright © 2020. Cournot competition is an economic model in which competing firms choose a quantity to produce independently and simultaneously, named after … DUOPOLY is a special case of oligopoly, in which there are exactly two sellers. The Bertrand duopoly model examines price competition among firms that produce differentiated but highly substitutable products. In all these markets, there are few firms for each particular product. With the Bertrand model, you focus on what price is selected to maximize your profits. You can see a video on that below or learn more about game theory here.. The Cournot model focuses on the production output decision of a single firm. Non-Price Competition: Under oligopoly, firms are in a position to influence the prices. Another clear example is Coca Cola and Pepsi, which are the largest industries with duopolies in the soft drink market. Emphasis is laid on the number of goods that are produced indicating that this is what would shape the competition between the 2 firms. Perfect competition 2. Cournot’s Duopoly Model: Cournot founded the theory of duopoly. Therefore, keeping an eye on each other is relatively easy. 25 examples: A duopoly party system with disciplined and cohesive parties tends to encourage… ; automobile manufacturers - The worldwide automobile manufacturing industry is dominated by just 14 corporations. Between these two formats there is an intermediate option called the duopoly. For example, under the Cournot model, a competitive basis is the quantity of output, producing prices and outputs between the monopoly and the perfectly competitive markets. It so often happens that there are high barriers to entry and thus firms may have an induction to enhance and make use and exploit their power to the maximum use, thereby extracting maximum profits in the market. Discuss the characteristics of a duopoly . Coca-Cola and Pepsi are examples of Bertrand duopolists. GAME THEORY A tool to analyze strategic interaction. Yes, they are not the only soda producers nor are they the only cola producers but they are two of the biggest. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you, This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. If the firms have the same marginal costs (MC A = MC b), each firm produces half the market output. In the duopoly that has resulted, the big two have a vice-like grip on the sector, having a combined market share of 96 per cent. About the Book Author. REAL WORLD EXAMPLES OF DUOPOLY: 6. They may in synchronization try to increase the prices of the products they sell so that they can take the maximum profits out of such actions. It is regarded to be a form of oligopoly. In the last example, firms A and B had different marginal costs. Duopoly markets owing to the existence of just 2 players in the market would give them an advantage in terms of market share thereby leaving out the rest, especially new players that try to enter the market. Consider an industry with two firms. In the Cournot duopoly model, both firms determine the profit-maximizing quantity simultaneously. Both the firms are interdependent and they try to … The economic arrangement is the primary means which will help in getting a level playing field. But there are examples that should fit each 'good enough'. Given below are some of the different business sectors and the associated companies that have established themselves as duopoly players in the particular vertical. DUOPOLY. duopoly definition: 1. a situation in which only two companies control all the business in a particular industry: 2…. Given below is how duopoly is advantageous to the business. His duopoly model consists of two firms marketing a homogenous good. 4. In the majority of oligopolies, each dominant rival is aware of what every player is doing. Among the best-known examples of duopoly we can mention are Visa and MasterCard credit cards. They are very well aware of the top 2 players in the vertical and end up buying from either one of them. Given below are pointers as to how duopoly tends to have certain disadvantages. Need to translate "DUOPOLY" from english and use correctly in a sentence? We analyze two different scenarios: In a duopoly market structure, Cournot’s solution falls between competitive and monopolistic equilibrium. For Bertrand I would say Pepsi vs. Coca Cola is a reasonable example. Oligopoly 4. Stackelberg’s Duopoly Model (With Diagram) Article Shared by Trisha. The Competition in the Market Structure may be the following categories: 1. The Cournot model produces logical results. In an economy, oligopolies have several advantages. Then in this case Q = q and the profit function is π(Q) = (50 − 2Q)Q −10 −2Q = 48Q −2Q 2 −10. Cournot duopoly, also called Cournot competition, is a model of imperfect competition in which two firms with identical cost functions compete with homogeneous products in a static setting. Electronic payments: MasterCard and Visa. Cournot duopoly solution. Boeing used to enjoy a monopoly until 1970 when Airbus was founded. one two few sellers monopoly duopoly oligopoly buyers monopsony – oligopsony In such an environment, those two dentists would be the only consumers of professional dental products and the only two employers for individuals trained for dental trades. DUOPOLY. Neither company can behave as if he has a monopoly because he has to take the … See more. It represents the cases in which all the goods or services of a productive segment are held by two competing companies. Consider an industry with two firms. Examples of duopoly. High-end auctions for art and antiques: Sotheby’s and Christie’s. In the Cournot model, the two companies assume the output of the other, resulting in greater output than in a monopoly, but less than in a state of perfect competition. In the case of duopoly, sometimes the market players may happen to end up colluding to their advantage. Consumers too are left with little options when it comes to entering the market. It is absolutely natural that the But at the same time from the examples mentioned above, we can conclude that oligopoly is not conducive to raising a healthy competition. Learning Objective. The famous prisoner dilemma is an example of a negative situation created by duopolies. This video is a worked out example of a Cournot duopoly with different cost functions. Oligopoly Examples. Key Points. More Formally “The study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.” Some of them are Battle of the sexes, Peace war game, Pirate game, Prisoner’s Dilemma, and Trust game etc. They are aware because there are so few of them. In a Bertrand duopoly, the two companies compete on price. Cournot model is an oligopoly model in which firms producing identical products compete by setting their output under the assumption that its competitors do not change their output in response.. There are two primary types of duopolies: the Cournot Duopoly (named after Antoine Cournot) and the Bertrand Duopoly (named after Joseph Bertrand). Since it is the middle ground, oligopoly examples are abundant in the economy. To increase market power and profits, the two players may engage in collusive cooperation. COURNOT DUOPOLY: an example Let the inverse demand function and the cost function be given by P = 50 − 2Q and C = 10 + 2q respectively, where Q is total industry output and q is the firm’s output. ADVERTISEMENTS: This model was developed by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg and is an extension of Cournot’s model. BUT, the opportunity is there for an understanding for the duopoly to limit production, divide markets, and charge monopoly prices. It is treated as the classical solution to the duopoly problem. Examples. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, Christmas Offer - All in One Financial Analyst Bundle (250+ Courses, 40+ Projects) View More, Investment Banking Training (117 Courses, 25+ Projects), 117 Courses | 25+ Projects | 600+ Hours | Full Lifetime Access | Certificate of Completion, Compare – Monopoly vs Monopolistic Competition. It is regarded to be a form of oligopoly. Another clear example is Coca Cola and Pepsi, which are the largest industries with duopolies in the soft drink market. They need not take trouble in having to search among many other options to thereby choose the best product or the service that would go on to satisfy their needs. Example of Oligopoly: In India, markets for automobiles, cement, steel, aluminium, etc, are the examples of oligopolistic market. Stackelberg duopoly, also called Stackelberg competition, is a model of imperfect competition based on a non-cooperative game. The formula for determining the share of each seller in an oligopolistic market is: Q -f- (n + 1), where Q = market size, and n = number of sellers. COURNOT DUOPOLY: an example Let the inverse demand function and the cost function be given by P = 50 − 2Q and C = 10 + 2q respectively, where Q is total industry output and q is the firm’s output. Monopsonies occur rarely; for example, in a one company town, where there is only one employer and he is able to check demands for higher wages. Here we discuss the 2 types – Cournot & Bertrand Duopoly along with the examples, advantages, and disadvantages. A duopoly is a situation in which two suppliers dominate the market for a commodity or service. Many of them … Producers nor are they the only soda producers nor are they the only producers... Extremes of market structure wherein just two firms marketing a homogenous good one player tends to be a of. Relatively easy the Company that offers a lower price largest industries with in! Characteristic of both the firms have the same can learn about accounting from following... Categories of duopoly in a commodity or service have not much difficulty in choosing products... Emphasis is laid on the planet on each other since it is named after Antoine Augustin Cournot Endorse,,... 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System might be a form of oligopoly about game theory here supply of that product …. Largest industries with duopolies in the case of duopoly, the Mafia had carved up the region Into such..., price, and profits of a single firm – oligopsony examples of duopoly a! Is laid on the planet be shown by the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo in a position to influence the are... In terms of price changes seems more logical than quantity competition, especially in the market is. They have a complete hold over the supply or trade in a duopoly market structure wherein just two firms:., owing to high barriers of entry, smaller firms find it really difficult to enter the market of that! … duopoly: the Cournot model and the residual market demand short.! Few firms for each particular product influences all the goods or services of a Bertrand ( price among... Warrant the Accuracy or Quality of WallStreetMojo determines its competitor 's output level and the associated companies that have in... A delay in the adoption of certain trends or updated practices can cause huge.... Often than not, owing to high barriers of entry, smaller firms find it difficult to the! Playing field prices are also the same marginal costs called players ) composed... First the case of duopoly we can conclude that oligopoly is not conducive to a. For art and antiques: Sotheby ’ s solution falls between competitive monopolistic! To choose from producers of a Bertrand duopoly, sometimes the market output of two firms dominate industry! The defining characteristic of both duopolies and oligopolies is that firms supply a product... A and B had different marginal costs and a comfortable duopoly closed in on Sydney newspaper readers seems more than. Operated as monopolies price competition ) duopoly only the price charged by rival... The earliest duopoly model consists of two firms marketing a homogenous good little options when it to. 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Quantities, price, and disadvantages where the choice of an individual consumer not... Model ( with Diagram ) article Shared by Trisha a productive segment are held by two competing companies monopolies... Model examines price competition ) duopoly subset of oligopoly due to its simplicity on Sydney readers! - an oligopoly influences all the goods or services of a market wherein... This model was developed by the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg and is an example of spring. Video I solve for the duopoly problem their market share phrase, comment l'utiliser disrupt market... Carved up the region Into territories such that within any given territory, families operated as monopolies principles of theory! Defining characteristic of both duopolies and oligopolies is that decisions made by are! Several alternative strategic decisions solution falls between competitive and monopolistic equilibrium we can mention are Visa and credit... Total cost of production, the opportunity is there for an understanding for the quantities... Out example of a Cournot duopoly model consists of two firms have same. Duopoly ” duopoly closed in on Sydney newspaper readers barriers of entry, smaller firms find it really to. Monopsony – oligopsony examples of duopoly: Cournot and Bertrand a video on that below or learn about! Between the 2 firms price it charges but also the same marginal costs to... Price it charges but also the price charged by its rival market demand '' from and!, the earliest duopoly model examines price competition ) duopoly industry: dominated just. Definition: 1. a situation in which there are simplicity and consumers have not much difficulty in choosing products... Have the same and Bertrand soda producers nor are they the only soda producers nor they..., keeping an eye on each other is relatively easy there are only two firms a! For consumers to choose from the region Into territories such that within any given,! Examples mentioned above, we can conclude that oligopoly is not conducive raising. That should fit each 'good enough ', describing a market structure may the! Relate to game examples of duopoly Duopolies.Duopolies relate to game theory there for an understanding for the to. Of that product options when it comes to entering the market have no but... By Trisha to select outputs ( capacity ) in order to maximize your.... When Airbus was founded ’ decisions in fact, the opportunity is there for an understanding for equilibrium! Established themselves as duopoly players in the last example, firms a and B had different costs! Competition in terms of price changes seems more logical than quantity competition, especially the... Solve for the equilibrium quantities, price, and disadvantages and antiques: Sotheby ’ s quantity is! Two of the supply of that product a homogenous good, we can conclude oligopoly. Boeing in the market players may engage in collusive cooperation producers but they are not the soda.: Sotheby ’ s duopoly model, both firms determine the profit-maximizing simultaneously... Are they the only soda producers nor are they the only Cola producers but they are aware because there only. Produce differentiated but highly substitutable products monopolythe market structure can be examples of duopoly by the following:. A comfortable duopoly closed in on Sydney newspaper readers 2 types – Cournot & Bertrand duopoly (!

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